INDONESIA’S CORRUPTION PERCEPTION INDEX 2022 EXPERIENCES THE WORST DECLINE IN THE HISTORY OF THE REFORM ERA
During President Joko Widodo’s administration, the quality of eradicating corruption and democracy tended to decline.
Jakarta, January 31st, 2023– On this day (31/1/2023), Transparency International launched the Corruption Perception Index (CPI) 2022 results worldwide with the theme: Corruption, Conflict, and Security. The CPI is a composite indicator to measure perceptions of public sector corruption on a scale of 0 (very corrupt) to 100 (very clean) in 180 countries and territories based on a combination of 13 global surveys and assessments of corruption according to business sector perceptions and expert judgment since 1995.
The theme was raised to remind governments around the world that corrupt practices can undermine political, social, and economic stability, which in the end, will threaten peace, safety, and security in general. Corruption can also create fertile ground for organized crime, terrorism, and even war, as impunity continues to exist through the complicity of corrupt public and law enforcement officials.
Russia’s invasion of Ukraine in February 2022 was a stark reminder that a lack of government accountability could threaten global peace and security. At the same time, this spectacle has revealed the involvement of countries with high CPI scores as sponsors for corrupt practices elsewhere.
CPI 2022: INDONESIA
Since it was launched for the first time in 1995, Indonesia has been one of the countries whose corruption situation has been monitored regularly. The 2022 Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) demonstrates that Indonesia continues to experience severe challenges in fighting corruption. “Indonesia’s CPI in 2022 is at a score of 34/100 and is ranked 110 out of 180 countries surveyed. This score is down 4 points from last 2021, which was at a score of 38/100. This score is down 4 points from 2021, the most drastic decline since 1995.” told Wawan Suyatmiko, Deputy Secretary General of Transparency International Indonesia.
With this result, Indonesia could only increase its CPI score by 2 points from a score of 32 over the last decade since 2012. This condition shows that the response to corruption practices is still slow and worsens due to stakeholders’ lack of factual support.
Results of Indonesia’s 8 composite indicators on CPI 2022:
- Three data sources experienced a decrease compared to the previous year’s findings: PRS, which fell 13 points; IMD World Competitiveness Yearbook, which fell 5 points; and PERC Asia, which fell 3 points.
- Three data sources experienced stagnation: Global Insight, Bertelsmann Transformation Index, and the Economist Intelligence Unit.
- Two data sources experienced a one-point increase, namely the World Justice Project – Rule of Law Index and the Varieties of Democracy Project (VDem). Nonetheless, the indicators for both data sources are exclusively contributed by the increase in the general aggregate regionally. This is because in the last five years, the WJP-ROL Index and the VDem have always been far below and the lowest when viewed from the average annual CPI score during the previous two decades.
Secretary General of Transparency International Indonesia, J. Danang Widoyoko points out that the dramatic decrease in CPI’s score in 2022 has demonstrated the failure of the Indonesian government’s strategies and programs to control corruption. The main goal of the amendment of the Law on KPK in 2019 was changing the strategy from law enforcement to prevention. The government has claimed that a number of programs in the online public service and investment service, and even the Job Creation law are the grand strategy to control corruption through effective prevention. However, the latest result of CPI shows a failure of that strategy.
Moreover, control of corruption in other strategic sectors, such as political and judicial corruption has not produced a positive outcome yet. A small increase in scores in WJP-ROL Index and VDem demonstrates further evidence of the absence of strategic policy to prevent corruption. In fact, those two sectors are in the lowest score of CPI’s components and contribute to the low score of CPI. The absence of policy and stagnant results in those two sectors affect the dramatic decrease of Indonesia’s 2022 CPI’ score.
Indonesia’s situation at this year’s CPI is also sinking into the position of 1/3 of the most corrupt countries in the world and far below the average CPI score in Asia-Pacific countries, which is 45. The largest country in Southeast Asia shares its position with Bosnia and Herzegovina, Gambia, Malawi, Nepal, and Sierra Leone, scoring 34. Meanwhile, Indonesia’s position in the South-East Asia Region is ranked 7th out of 11 countries, far below several neighboring countries such as Singapore, Malaysia, Timor Leste, Vietnam, and Thailand.
At the same time, even though Indonesia is hosting one of the most important diplomatic forums during 2022, the G20 Forum, the Indonesian Presidency has failed to produce evidence-based commitments and strategies to reinforce a more tangible global anti-corruption agenda. Until now, Russian kleptocrats still relish impunity, whereas the cross-border authorities that function to freeze and confiscate illegal assets are still not provided with adequate power, resources, or tools.
CPI 2022: GLOBAL DAN REGIONAL
Globally, Denmark (90) tops this year’s index, followed by Finland and New Zealand, which score 87. Strong democratic institutions and great respect for human rights also make these countries among the most peaceful in the world, according to the Global Peace Index.
Delia Ferreira Rubio, Chair of Transparency International said: “Corruption has made our world a more dangerous place. As governments have collectively failed to make progress against it, they fuel the current rise in violence and conflict – and endanger people everywhere. The only way out is for states to do the hard work, rooting out corruption at all levels to ensure governments work for all people, not just an elite few.”
Meanwhile, South Sudan (13), Syria (13), and Somalia (12), all of which were involved in prolonged conflicts, remained at the bottom of the CPI. In addition, 26 countries, including Qatar (58), Guatemala (24), and the United Kingdom (73), are at historic lows this year.
The Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) released by Transparency International this year ensures that most countries in the world have made little or no significant progress in tackling corruption for over a decade, with more than two-thirds of countries scoring below 50.
The CPI 2022 also reveals that despite the concerted efforts and the many achievements that have been achieved, it cannot be denied that the scale of the problem is still vast. The global average has remained stagnant at a score of 43 out of 100 for eleven consecutive years, and more than two-thirds of countries (122) continue to face serious corruption problems, with scores below 50.
Meanwhile, the Asia Pacific average has remained stagnant, with a score of 45 for the fourth year in a row, with more than 70 percent of countries ranking below 50. Despite the fact that the opportunities presented by various diplomatic summits being held in the region in 2022, countries across Asia continue to focus solely on economic development at the expense of other priorities, including anti-corruption efforts.
New Zealand (87), Singapore (83), Hong Kong (76), and Australia (75) continue to lead in Asia Pacific, but New Zealand has relinquished its position as the best in the world. Meanwhile, Afghanistan (24), Cambodia (24), Myanmar (23), and North Korea (17) got the lowest score. Democracy is also on the decline in large population centers, including India (40), Indonesia (34), the Philippines (33), and Bangladesh (25), as governments tend to consolidate power in the hands of the executive and implement laws that restrict freedom of speech, as well as imprison those who express dissent.
Transparency International Indonesia calls on the government to prioritize anti-corruption commitments, strengthen checks and balances, uphold the right to information, and limit private influence to finally rid the world of corruption and the instability it causes.
- Upholds Political System and Upcoming Elections with Integrity
The President and the Government, the DPR and Political Parties, Election and Oversight Institutions, and Law Enforcement Agencies must guarantee the principles of integrity and anti-corruption;
- Pursue More Sustainable Anti-Corruption in Economic Policy
The government and the private sector must be consistent in building an anti-corruption system;
- Guarding Democracy and Civil Space
The government must guarantee civil liberties and civic space for public aspirations in the formation of regulations to the implementation of development;
Alvin Nicola – firstname.lastname@example.org
Wawan Suyatmiko – email@example.com
Access the full report: www.ti.or.id
ABOUT CORRUPTION PERCEPTIONS INDEX
Since its inception in 1995, the Corruption Perceptions Index has become the leading global indicator of public sector corruption. The index assesses 180 countries and territories worldwide on perceptions of public sector corruption, using data from 13 external sources, including the World Bank, World Economic Forum, private risk, consulting firms, think tanks, and others. Scores reflect the views of experts and business people.
The process for calculating the CPI is regularly reviewed to ensure it is as robust and coherent as possible, most recently by the European Commission’s Joint Research Center in 2017. All CPI scores since 2012 are comparable from one year to the next. For more information, see the article: The ABCs of the CPI: How the Corruption Perceptions Index is calculated.
The media pages include the CPI 2022 report, the full data set and methodology, international press releases, and other additional analyses. Further access at: https://www.transparency.org/en/cpi/2022/media-kit
ABOUT TRANSPARENCY INTERNATIONAL INDONESIA
A part of Transparency International, a global network of anti-corruption NGOs based in Berlin, Germany that promotes transparency and accountability to state institutions, political parties, businesses, and civil society with more than 100 chapters worldwide.
Since its establishment in 2000, TI-Indonesia has struggled to build a clean country from corrupt practices and impacts. Several studies have become references for the global community, such as the Corruption Perception Index (CPI) and the Global Corruption Barometer (GCB).
In Indonesia, TI-Indonesia works closely with central/regional governments, civil society, the media, and universities in strengthening the anti-corruption movement, starting from the process of making anti-corruption policies to their implementation.
- The CPI scores 180 countries and territories around the world based on perceptions of public sector corruption. The scores reflect the views of experts and surveys from businesspeople, not the public. (See methodology video.)
- The CPI is calculated using data from 13 external sources, including the World Bank, World Economic Forum, private risk, and consulting companies, think tanks, and others.
- The CPI uses a scale from 0 to 100; 100 is very clean and 0 is highly corrupt.
- Types of public sector corruption captured in the CPI encompass bribery, diversion of public funds, effective prosecution of corruption cases, adequate legal frameworks, access to information, and legal protections for whistleblowers, journalists, and investigators.
- The CPI does not measure activities such as tax fraud, money laundering, financial secrecy, illicit flows of dirty money, or other forms of private sector corruption.